The Puritan State


The Puritan State
«пуританский штат». Штат Массачусетс находится на месте колоний, основанных в 1620 г. пуританами, выходцами из Англии. Жителей штата по традиции называют Puritans.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony was founded in 1630 by about 1,000 Puritans led by John Winthrop who followed the Pilgrims. The company charter placed the powers of government in a small group of Puritan leaders who hoped to make money from the fur trade, fisheries, lumbering and possibly gold mining. They settled such towns as Boston, Salem, Lynn, Roxbury and Dorchester.
Puritans, in general, were English followers of Calvin. Puritanism was popular in England in the days of Cromwell (XVIII century). Cromwell himself supported the general ideas of Puritanism, but he was sympathetic to sports, art and the theater. Puritanism of New England evokes the image of a sour, fanatically joyless tribe. Dancing, especially the village revels around the maypole, and music (excepting solemn hymns) were banned equally with gambling, loose social conduct, games and exhibitions, and indeed all pleasures and enjoyments. They forbade all but the most necessary work and absolutely all recreation on Sunday, even mere idle strolling; the day must be given to attendance at church and to prayer and Bible reading at home. In New England the Puritans tried to dominate all religious, political and social life with a rigid hand, opposing any dissenters. In the Massachusetts Bay Colony only those who belonged to the church enjoyed the right to vote for the governor andmembers of the Legislature, called the General Court Church and state were virtually one in the "Bible Commonwealth". Ministers, chosen by the congregation spoke with authority and their word was enforced as law. Although the Puritans were themselves dissenters, they did not tolerate dissent from their beliefs and practices. The people of Massachusetts are often called "Puritans".

Америка через американизмы. — М.: «Высшая школа». . 1982.

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